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Saturn Icy Moon Enceladus
In the ongoing drive to unlock the secrets of Saturn and its system of moons, some truly fascinating and awe inspiring things have been discovered. In addition to things like methane lakes and propane rich atmospheres (Titan) canada goose outlet online store to moon’s that resemble the Death Star (Mimas), it is also becoming abundantly clear that planet’s beyond Earth may harbor interior oceans and even the extra terrestrial organisms.
Nowhere is this more apparent than on Enceladus, Saturn’s sixth canada goose outlet 80 off largest moon, which also possesses some of the most interesting characteristics in the outer Solar System. These include long veins of blue ice that resemble stripes, not to mention amazing plumes of water ice that canada goose outlet online have been spotted periodically blasting out of the moon’s southern pole. These, in turn, raise the possibility of liquid water beneath the canada goose outlet michigan surface, and possibly even life!
Canada Goose sale Discovery and Naming: Canada Goose sale
Canada Goose Coats On Sale Discovered in 1789 by William Herschel, Enceladus is named after one of the giants in Greek mythology. In fact, all of the large moons of Saturn canada goose outlet belgium are named after the Titans, as suggested by William Herschel’s son, John Herschel. He chose canada goose outlet mall these names because Saturn (known in Greek mythology as Kronos) was the father of the Titans. Canada Goose Coats On Sale
uk canada goose outlet In contrast, in accordance with the IAU naming canada goose premium outlet conventions for Enceladus, features are named after characters and places from the classic story One Thousand and canada goose outlet price One Nights (aka. uk canada goose outlet
cheap canada goose uk Size comparison between the Cronian moon Enceladus, canada goose outlet the Moon, and Earth. Credit: NASA/JPL Caltech/Tom RedingSize, Mass and Orbit: cheap canada goose uk
With a mean radius of 252 km, Enceladus is equivalent in size to 0.0395 Earths (or 0.1451 Moons). But with a mass of1.08 1020 kg, canada goose parka uk it is only 0.000018 as massive. The planet has a very minor eccentricity (0.0047) and orbits Saturn at an average distance canada goose outlet eu (semi major axis) of 237,948km, between the orbits of Mimas and Tethys.
Enceladus takes 32.9 hours (1.37 days) to complete a single orbit around Saturn, and is currently in a 2:1 mean motion orbital resonance with Dione; meaning that it completes two orbits of Saturn for every orbit completed by Dione. official canada goose outlet This forced resonance is what maintains Enceladus’s orbital eccentricity canada goose outlet us and results in tidal deformation, and the resulting heat dissipation is the main heating source for Enceladus’s geologic activity.
canada goose coats on sale Like most of the larger natural satellites of Saturn, Enceladus rotates synchronously with its orbital period, keeping one face pointed toward Saturn. The planet also experiences forced libration, where it appears to oscillate relative to Saturn’s other canada goose outlet uk moons which may also provide Enceladus with an internal heat source. canada goose coats on sale
Composition and Surface Features:
canada goose uk shop Enceladus has a density of 1.61 g/cm, which is higher than Saturn’s other mid sized, icy satellites, suggesting a composition that includes a greater percentage of silicates and iron. It is also believed to be largely differentiated between a geologically active core and an icy mantle, with a liquid water ocean nestled between. canada goose uk shop
Canada Goose online Gravity measurements by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft and Deep Space Network suggest that Saturn’s moon Enceladus harbors a large interior ocean beneath it’s south pole. Credit: NASA/JPL CaltechThe existence of this liquid water ocean has been the subject of scientific debate since 2005, when scientists first observed plumes containing water vapor spewing from Enceladus’s south polar surface. These jets are canada goose outlet vip capable of dispensing 250kg of water vapor every second at canada goose outlet london uk speeds of up to 2,189km/h (1,360mph), and reaching 500 km into space. Canada Goose online
In 2006, it was determined that Enceladus’s plumes are the source of Saturn’s E Ring and actively replenish it. According to measurements made by the Cassini Huygens probe, these emissions are composed mostly of water vapor, as well as minor components like molecular nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide. Further observations noted the presence of simple hydrocarbons such as methane, propane, acetylene and formaldehyde.
Canada Goose Parka The combined analysis of imaging, mass spectrometry, and magnetospheric data suggests that the observed south polar plume emanates from pressurized subsurface chambers. The intensity of the eruptions varies significantly due to canada goose outlet paypal changes in Enceladus’s orbit. Basically, the plumes are about four times brighter when Enceladus is at apoapsis (farthest from Saturn), which is consistent with geophysical calculations that predict that the south polar fissures will be under less compression, thus opening them wider. Canada Goose Parka
Canada Goose Jackets The existence of subsurface water was confirmed thanks to evidence provided by the Cassini mission in 2014. This included gravity measurements obtained during the flybys of 2010 2012, which confirmed the existence of a south polar subsurface ocean of liquid water within Enceladus with a thickness of around 10km. Canada Goose Jackets
Canada Goose Online Artist’s rendering canada goose outlet montreal of possible hydrothermal activity that may be taking place on and under the seafloor of Enceladus. Credit: NASA/JPLIn addition, during the July 14, 2005 flyby, the Cassini probe also detected the presence of escaping internal heat in canada goose outlet sale the southern polar region. These temperatures were too high to be attributed to solar heating, and combined with the geyser activity, seemed to indicate that the interior of the planet is still geologically active. Canada Goose Online
canada goose uk black friday Further studies from measurements of Enceladus’s libration as it orbits Saturn strongly suggest that the entire icy crust is detached from the rocky core, which would mean that the ocean beneath its surface is planet wide. The amount of libration implies that this global ocean is about 26 to 31 kilometers in depth (compared to Earth’s average ocean depth of 3.7 kilometers). canada goose uk black friday
cheap Canada Goose Observations of Enceladus’ surface has revealed five types of terrain cratered terrain, smooth (young) terrain, ridged terrain (often bordering on smooth areas), linear cracks, scarps, troughs, and grooves. Surveys of the cratered canada goose outlet store new york terrain, smooth plains, and other features indicate a level of resurfacing that suggests that tectonics are an important factor in the geological history of Enceladus. cheap Canada Goose
canada goose clearance Recent observations by Cassini have provided a closer look at the crater distribution and size. the Shahrazad crater, the Diyar plains, the Anbar depression. canada goose clearance
Artist impression of the view of Saturn from Enceladus, with geysers erupting at the right canada goose kensington parka uk in the foreground. Credit: Michael CarrollThe smooth plains are dominated by fresh clean ice, which gives Enceladus what is possibly the most reflective surface in the Solar System canada goose jacket outlet (with a visual geometric albedo of 1.38). These areas have few craters, which indicate that they are likely younger than a few hundred million years old. In addition, the relative youthfulness of these regions are an indication that cryovolcanism and other processes actively renew the surface.
canada goose coats The older terrain is not only cratered, but numerous fractures have also been observed suggesting that the surface has been subject to extensive deformation since the craters formed. Some areas show regions with no craters, indicating major resurfacing events in the geologically recent past. The fissures, plains, corrugated terrain and other crustal deformations also indicate that Enceladus is geologically active. canada goose coats
One of the more dramatic types of tectonic features found on Enceladus are its rift canyons. These canyons can be up to 200km long, 5 10km wide, and 1km deep. Such features are geologically young, because they cut across other tectonic features and have sharp topographic relief with prominent outcrops along the cliff faces.
Canada Goose Outlet Evidence of tectonics on Enceladus is also derived from grooved terrain, consisting of lanes of curved formations and ridges that often separate smooth plains from cratered regions. Deep fractures are another, which are often found in bands cutting across cratered terrain, and which canada goose outlet in new york were probably influenced by the formation of weakened regolith produced by impact craters. Canada Goose Outlet
Enceladus, showing the famous http://www.canadagoosesalesus.com «Tiger Stripes» feature a series of fractures bound on either side by colorful ice. canada goose outlet mississauga Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteLinear grooves can also be seen cutting across other terrain types, like the groove and ridge belts. Like the deep rifts, they are among the youngest features on Enceladus. However, canada goose outlet germany some linear grooves have been softened like the craters nearby, suggesting that they are older. Ridges have also been observed on Enceladus, though they are relatively limited in extent and are up to one kilometer tall.
Other interesting features include the canada goose outlet in uk «Tiger stripes»: a series of fractures bounded on either side by ridges in the southern polar region that are are surrounded by mint green colored, coarse grained water ice. The source of the atmosphere is attributed to the periodic cryovolcanism, which leads to gases and vapor escaping from the surface or the interior. Evidence of a tenuous atmosphere came from magnetometer readings provided by the Cassini’s probe in 2005.
canada goose store This consisted of an increased detection in the power of ion cyclotron waves, which are produced by the interaction of ionized particles and magnetic fields. During the next two encounters, the magnetometer team determined that gases in Enceladus’s atmosphere are concentrated over the south polar region, with atmospheric density away from the pole being canada goose factory outlet toronto location much lower canada goose store.